Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.


Gagarin with young pioneers.

55 years ago the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin said: «Let’s go» and made the first flight of mankind to Space.
Yuri Gagarin was born March 9, 1934 in a small village Klushino near Smolensk. His parents used to be peasants, farmers. In 1941 he began studying at a secondary school but his studies were interrupted by the WW2 (Great Patriotic War as we call it in Russia (1941-1945)).
After the war, the Gagarin’s family moved to Gzhatsk, where Yuri continued his studies in high school.

In 1951 he graduated from a vocational school in the Moscow suburb of Lyubertsy, as the specialist of foundry molder. The same year, he continued his studies at the Saratov Industrial Technical School, from which he graduated in 1955.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

As a student at the college, he entered the flying club and forever linked his life with aviation. The pilot’s instructor Dmitry Martynov’s words that Yuri Gagarin will be a wonderful pilot, happened to be decisive in his life. In this flying club Yuri Gagarin made his first flight.

In 1955 he entered and in 1957 graduated from the 1-st Chkalov Military Aviation School named by Voroshilov in Orenburg. And under the choice of the pilot he was sent above the Arctic Circle to one of the air units of the Northern Fleet.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

At the end of the 1950s some of young pilots began retraining on the set of «new technology». Then no one has openly talked about flying in space, so the name «new technology» was given to the spaceships.
December 9, 1959 Gagarin wrote a statement with a request to enroll him in the group of candidates for cosmonauts. A week later he was summoned to Moscow to undergo a comprehensive medical examination at the Central Scientific Research Aviation Hospital. Early next year, followed by another special medical board, which recognized the lieutenant Gagarin fit for spaceflight.
March 3, 1960 by the order of the Commander of the Air Force Vershinin Yuri Gagarin was enrolled in the group of candidates for the astronauts, and from 11 March started training with another 19 young fighter pilots.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

As preparations began, no one could even guess which one of them will open the way to the stars.
It was later, when the flight became a reality, when the terms of the flight were clear, tha commander emerged a group of six people, which began to prepare to the space flight.
Gagarin and his comrades had to go the way of year filled with endless workouts in surdo- and pressure chambers, centrifuges, gym. The experiment followed the other experiment, parachute flights were replaced on the fighters, training aircraft, a flying laboratory, which was converted out of Tu-104.

Four months before the flight it was almost clear that it would Gagarin. None of the leaders of the Soviet space program never said that Yury was prepared better than others.
Selection was determined by many factors: physiological parameters and knowledge of technology were not dominant. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev, who closely followed the preparations for, and the head of the Defense Department of the Central Committee, was in charge of the development of space, and the first secretary of the CPSU Central Committee Nikita Khrushchev knew perfectly well that the first astronaut ought to become the face of our country worthy to represent our homeland in the international arena. Perhaps that was the reason to make the choice in favor of Gagarin, who charmed all he communicated with.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

The day of April 12, 1961.
From the report of TASS:
«April 12, 1961. The Soviet Union launched into orbit around the Earth the world’s first spacecraft-satellite» Vostok «with a man on board. Pilot-cosmonaut on board a spacecraft-satellite «Vostok» is a citizen of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics pilot Major Yuri Alekseevich Gagarin. The start of the Space multistage rocket was a success, and after a set of the first cosmic speed and separation from the last stage of the rocket carrier «Vostok » made a free flight around the Earth … With the help of radio telemetry and television systems the state of the astronaut in flight was supervised…

According to the information received from the board of the «Vostok» spacecraft at 9 o’clock 52 minutes Moscow time, the pilot-cosmonaut Major Yuri Gagarin, while over South America, narrated: «The flight is normal, I feel good.»

At 10 o’clock 15 minutes Moscow time, the pilot-cosmonaut Major Yuri Gagarin flying over Africa he said, «Flight is proceeding normally, the state of weightlessness stand good.»

At 10 o’clock 25 minutes Moscow time, after the flyby of the world in accordance with a predetermined program, included brake propulsion system and spaceship-satellite with pilot-cosmonaut Major Gagarin began to descend from orbit for landing in a predetermined area of ​​the Soviet Union.

Fulfilled with success all the planned studies and the flight program April 12, 1961 at 10 hours 55 minutes Moscow time the Soviet ship «Vostok» made a safe landing in a predetermined area of ​​the Soviet Union. «

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

The first flight lasted totally for 108 minutes, but these minutes were destined to become staring.
The good news in a few hours spread over the Earth, Yuri Gagarin became the Citizen of the World. Courage and fearlessness of simple Russian guy with a big smile conquered the whole of humanity.
Yuri Gagarin command to start the flight became a legend — his famous «Let’s go!».

World Mission.

Already at the end of April 1961, Yuri Gagarin went on his first trip abroad. «Peace Mission» as it is sometimes referred to. Round the world trip made by the first cosmonaut across countries and continents, lasted for two years. People everywhere met him with open hearts: kings and presidents, politicians and scientists, artists and musicians.

The following years were very intense in Gagarin’s life. He spent a lot of time and energy working on the preparation of new space missions and studying at the academy. December 20, 1963 Gagarin was appointed as Deputy Chief of Cosmonaut Training Center.

But most of all he wanted to fly.
In 1963 he restarted the flight training while a new space flight was in process of preparation in summer of 1966.
Those years, the «moon program» was  launched in the Soviet Union. One of those who was preparing to fly to the Moon was the first cosmonaut Yury Gagarin. For this purpose it was necessary to learn how to fly a new  spaceship «Soyuz».

The first test Moon flight was scheduled for April 1967. Vladimir Komarov and Yuri Gagarin both were ready for it. Komarov was the main pilot of the ship, it does not mean that he was better prepared. When this issue was solved,  the Commander decided not to risk Gagarin’s life.

Everyone knows how the flight of «Soyuz-1» ended…
Speaking at the memorial service devoted to his friend Vladimir Komarov, Yuri Gagarin promised that the astronauts will be taught to fly «Soyuz» and will not die any more.
«Soyuz» flies so far. But… this was done without Yuri Gagarin…


Versions of what happened.

March 27, 1968 the world learned about the terrible tragedy — the death of the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. It happened in the sky near the village Novoselovo the Vladimir region.
Yuri Gagarin performed a training flight with an instructor, Hero of the Soviet Union Vladimir Seregin.

Experts are still arguing about the causes of the plane crash near the village Novoselovo. But, apparently, they will not be able to answer this question unambiguously. All experts agree on one thing: the death of the first conqueror of the Space was an absolute nonsense. This opinion was expressed by cosmonaut Alexei Leonov at a press conference March 24, 2003 at the Central House of Journalists, dedicated to the 35th anniversary of Yury Gagarin’s death. Leonov said that the death of Yuri Gagarin and the commander of a special regiment Vladimir Seregin was coused by the  pilot of another aircraft — «Su-11» which violated the flight mission.

There are a lot of versions of Gagarin’s death, none of them found a sufficient evidence. However, after 40 years, a lot of people hardly accept this loss. Shortly before the death Gagarin just turned 34 years.

March 27 Yuri Gagarin commemorated by all his colleagues and those who prepare space missions. They bring flowers to Gagarin’s grave at the Kremlin wall and the monument at the place of his death. In order to perpetuate the memory of Yuri Gagarin.
The city Gzhatsk, Smolensk region was renamed to Gagarin. Gagarin’s name was assigned to the Gagarin Air Force Academy in Monino.

International Aeronautical Federation (FAI), established a medal named after Yury Gagarin. Gagarin’s name was given to the Russian State Scientific-Research Test Cosmonaut Training Center, schools, streets and squares of many cities in the world. In Moscow, Gagarin, Star City, Sofia the monuments to Gagarin were erected.
A small planet and a crater on the Moon were named after the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

The first manned space flight was a triumph of Soviet science and technology, a brilliant demonstration of the advantages of the socialist system as a reliable starting point for spaceflights.

To make the first flight into space the reality the Soviet Union prepared hundreds of specialists in various professions. Astronauts were involved in extensive program which included many different disciplines both theoretical and practical.

In preparation for the launch, they studied the basics of rocket and space technology, ship design, geophysics, astronomy, medicine. Particular attention was given by the teachers to the physical training of astronauts.

The arrival of each new day was celebrated with morning exercises engaged outdoors, rain or shine, under the supervision of the doctors. Gymnastics replaced the game with the ball, jumping into the water from a springboard gave way to the bicycle. And soon it was time for training in a centrifuge, the test in the isolation chamber, heat chamber, rotor, flying in an airplane weightless, skydiving.

Difficult and stubborn man was preparing to fly into space. It is not easy, it was given to us. It is not easy and had our mentors — scientists and physicians, biologists and engineers. That they have developed a scientifically based training system of astronauts is they carefully followed our heart, lungs, muscles and nerves, it is their hands has created a unique instrument that allows you to monitor the status of the astronaut in flight. Finally, are they given us confidence in the success.

From Gagarin’s memories:

«… Wednesday April 12th. Baikonur Cosmodrome, located in a wide, like the ocean, steppe. It will forever remain in my memory, this day and this steppe. And — the biggest, most importantly knowledge that me, an ordinary citizen of the Soviet country, a young communist, entrusted with the great honor — to be first in space.

Minutes farewell to Earth. Focused, inspired faces of the Chief Designer and Theorist of Cosmonautics, scientists, engineers, doctors. And the encouraging gaze of my understudy — German Titov. Short words of farewell, and now the elevator lifts me into the cabin, «Vostok». Time flies. Finally, the long-awaited team: «Rise!» …

How do people behave in space flight? If he suffers from an overload acceleration as reflected in the state of weightlessness on his body? How the various spacecraft systems operate in outer space? These and many other questions I had to give clear answers.

What can you tell about the flight, which lasted less than two hours? The flight took place in an orbit with a perigee of 175 kilometers and an apogee of 302 kilometers. It went for one hundred and eight minutes.

Immediately upon entering the orbit the weightlessness occurred  — an unusual  condition for the inhabitants of the earth. At first, everything seemed very unusual, but I soon got used to this state, mastered and continued implementation of a given program. Weightlessness is a phenomenon for us, inhabitants of the Earth, it is a little strange. But the body quickly adapts to it, experiencing exceptional ease in all Member States.

Twenty-eight thousand kilometers per hour — that’s the rate at which the «Vostok» swept over the oceans and continents of our planet. Between the Earth and the ship connection was established, which worked flawlessly.

I passed on the message, heard the voices of my comrades. The cabin could hear the radio of my homeland. I always felt the attention and support of the whole country.

During the flight I conducted fruitful work on the program. Supported radio contact with Earth through several channels, both in telephone and telegraph in the modes, observed the work of the ship’s equipment, took  food and water.

The Earth from a space height was seen well. Mountains, coastline and islands were clearly seen.

The moment the shutter. Right on schedule load brake motor, overload increased again.

The ship promptly entered the dense layers of the atmosphere. Finally, the Earth. Anxious faces of comrades, again blue sky overhead and unforgettable sincere conversation with Nikita Khrushchev.»

Weeks and months passed. New tracks were laid in space spacecraft «Vostok-2», «Vostok-3» and «Vostok-4», piloted by German Titov, Andrian Nikolayev, Pavel Popovich. 130 turns made Soviet cosmonauts around the Earth.

Yuri Gagarin the first man in outer space.

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